Supernova Hypothesis Of Hoyle

F.Hoyle, a mathematician of Cambridge University presented his speculative theory known as Supernova Hypothesis in the year 1946. Supernova Hypothesis is based on the principles of ‘Nuclear Physics’ and was described in his essay entitled ‘Nature of the Universe’. According to Hoyle initially there were two stars in the universe; i.e. the primitive sun and the companion star. The companion star was a giant size and later on became supernova due to nuclear reaction.

Nuclear Fusion:

       It may be pointed out that energy, which is emitted by any star in the form of light, heat etc. is generated by the process known as ‘Nuclear fusion’; wherein  atoms of lighter elements combine under intense heat and pressure to forms atoms of heavier elements, releasing vast amount of energy. The stars generally contain hydrogen. The hydrogen nuclei slowly and slowly combine with each other to form Helium. In the comparatively heavier element helium is formed and vast amount of energy is also released. The same type of nuclear fusion was also going on in Hoyle’s primitive sun and the companion star, but, the rate of nuclear fusion was many times greater in the core of the companion star than the primitive sun. With the passage of time all of the hydrogen nuclei of the companion star were consumed in the process of nuclear reaction and it collapsed and violently exploded.

Origin Of The Solar System:

The violent explosion of the companion star resulted into the spread of enormous mass of dust which started revolving around the primitive sun. Hoyle maintained that when the companion star was violently exploded, the recoil of gigantic stellar explosion threw the nucleus of the companion star out of the gravitational field of the primitive sun. The gaseous matter coming out due to violent explosion of the companion Supernova star changed into a circular moving disc which started revolving around the primitive sun. Thus, the matter of this disc became building material for the formation of future planets. The main constituent elements of the building materials were formed during the explosion of the companion star of Supernova. It may be pointed out that the explosion of the companion star or Supernova generated intense heat equivalent to 5×109 degree centigrade which was sufficient enough to start the process of nuclear fusion. The intense heat and nuclear fusion became responsible for the formation of heavy elements. The explosion of the supernova generated intense heat and pressure which formed heavy elements of which our primitive earth was made. Thus, the planets of our solar system were formed due to condensation of the matter of the disc formed of the matter thrown out of the Supernova due to its violent explosion and nuclear reaction.

Evaluation:

  Hoyle became successful to show the three problems of the origin of the earth, postulated of ‘Tidal Hypothesis’ of sir James jeans which are given below:

1. The problem of great distance between the planets and the sun.
2. The problem of the angular momentum of the planets.
3. The problem of heavier material of the planets than the sun. 

Hoyle explained,

1. The shattered matter of the violently exploded supernova were thrown up to great distant locations  and thus the planets were also formed at great distances.
2. The large amount of angular momentum of the planets were provided by the violent explosion of the Supernova.

3. The materials were rendered denser and heavier due to intense heat and pressure generated from the nuclear fusion and violent explosion of the Supernova. But, Hoyle fails to explain the peculiar arrangement of the planets on the basis of their size, similar direction of rotation as well as the plane of revolution and path of the planets and the lighter constituent elements of the planets of the outer circle of our solar system on the other hand.


References:

  • K.Siddhartha – “The Earth’s Dynamic Surface”
  • S.Singh – Geomorphology
  • https://en.wikipedia.org
  • Strahler & Strahler – Physical Geography
  • M.J.Shelby – Earth’s Changing Surface

Read the Binary Start Hypothesis,

https://smoothknowledge.com/2017/08/26/binary-star-hypothesis-of-russell/

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