The word weathering is derived from weather. When the rocks are disintegrated and decomposed due weather elements such as water, temperature, wind, is called as weathering. Weathering is a static process, it means that weathered materials stay remain the same place.

Controlling factors of weathering: The rate of weathering is varies from place to place and also region to region. For example the rate of disintegration of rocks are more effective in hot and dry region and also the region where frost action is dominated. Similarly, chemical decomposition of the rocks are more effective in hot and humid region. Lithological and structural characteristics also influence the rate of weathering. Such as softer rocks are eroded faster than hard rocks. Beside, slope and gradient, topography, climatic condition, flora, micro organism also affect different process of weathering to a great extent.

Types of weathering process: there are three main types of weathering, such as mechanical weathering, chemical weathering, biological weathering.

The process of mechanical weathering:

  • Insolation weathering: block disintegration, exfoliation or onion weathering, granular disintegration, dart cracking, boulder cleaving.
  • Frost action: frost weathering, frost shattering, frost heaving.
  • Weathering due to rain: flaking, splitting
  • Weathering due to pressure: shetting, spalling

The process of chemical weathering:

  • Oxidation
  • Carbonation
  • Solution
  • Hydrolysis
  • Hydration
  • Chelation

The process of biological weathering:

  • Plant weathering
  • Animal weathering
  • Anthropogenic weathering

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